Nuclear Learning: The Next Decade in South Asia | 6 The Evolution of Pakistan's Nuclear Doctrine. Naeem Salik. Preamble doctrine is the foundation on. Riffat Hussain while discussing Pakistan's nuclear doctrine argues that it cannot disobey the policy of NFU due to Indian superiority in. No nuclear-weapons State evolves a nuclear deterrence strategy in isolation. Hence, Pakistan too seems to have analyzed other doctrines and  Pakistan's evolving nuclear doctrine - Pakistan Defence.


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During the cold war and the Pakistan nuclear doctrine nuclear confrontation the first firm doctrine for the employment of nuclear weapons was given by John Foster Dulles, US Secretary of State during the Eisenhower administration in It was the doctrine of 'Massive Retaliation' which meant that any Soviet pakistan nuclear doctrine would be answered with a massive retaliation with nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union.

In it was changed to 'Flexible response' during the Kennedy administration, the emphasis being on 'Damage Limitation' and 'Counter Force Targeting'.

It became the official NATO nuclear doctrine pakistan nuclear doctrine This was later changed to 'Strategy of Assured Destruction'.

The main feature of this doctrine was escalation control through a series of limited and selective strikes with pauses in between to allow for a negotiated cease-fire.

Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan - Wikipedia

In during the Carter administration the nuclear doctrine was contained in the 'Countervailing Strategy' which was essentially a refinement of the 'Schlesinger Doctrine'.

It enhanced the flexibility and gave the President a number of options for retaliation. It also pakistan nuclear doctrine to convince the USSR that it would be denied victory in a nuclear conflict. The emphasis being on counter force targeting.

During the Ronald Reagan era the 'countervailing strategy' was replaced by the 'Prevailing Strategy' which aimed at securing an American victory in all pakistan nuclear doctrine rather than denying victory to the USSR.

It will be noted that various alterations and changes took place in the Pakistan nuclear doctrine States nuclear doctrine under different administrations but the underlying theme remained constant. That nuclear weapons would be employed against the USSR in any future conflict to offset their numerical superiority in manpower and conventional arms, which could not be brought at par.

During any future Indo-Pak armed conflict India's numerical superiority in men and conventional arms is likely to exert pressure beyond pakistan nuclear doctrine.

Pakistan’s Nuclear Use Doctrine

In a deteriorating military situation when an Indian conventional attack is likely to break through our defences or has already breached the main defence line pakistan nuclear doctrine a major set-back to the pakistan nuclear doctrine, which cannot be restored by conventional means at our disposal, the government would be left with no other option except to use Nuclear Weapons to stabilize the situation.

India's superiority in conventional arms and manpower would have to be offset by nuclear weapons.

The political will to use nuclear weapons is essential to prevent a conventional armed conflict, which would later on escalate into a nuclear war.

Pakistan's Nuclear Doctrine would therefore essentially pakistan nuclear doctrine around the first-strike option.

India's shifting nuclear doctrine: Threat to Pakistan

In other words we will use nuclear weapons if attacked by India even if the attack is with conventional weapons. With his American experience of a pakistan nuclear doctrine nuclear response Professor Stephen P.


Cohen feels that Pakistan would use what he calls an 'option-enhancing policy' for a possible use of nuclear weapons. This would entail a stage-by-stage approach in pakistan nuclear doctrine the nuclear threat is increased at each step to deter India from attack.

Pakistan's Nuclear Doctrine - CSS Forums

The first step could be a public or private warning, the second a demonstration explosion of a small nuclear weapon on its own soil, the third step would be the use of a few nuclear weapons on its own soil against Indian attacking forces.

The fourth stage would be used against critical but purely military targets in India across the border from Pakistan. Probably in thinly populated areas in the desert or semi-desert, causing least collateral damage. Pakistan nuclear doctrine weapon systems would be in reserve for the counter-value role.

These weapons would be safe from Indian attack as some would be airborne while the ground based ones are pakistan nuclear doctrine and could be moved around the country. With some experience and the passage of time a degree of sophistication will certainly be introduced in Pakistan's nuclear doctrine of the first-use of nuclear weapons to provide the government pakistan nuclear doctrine options in the use of nuclear weapons.

These challenges have enhanced the fragility of strategic stability and complexity of nuclear deterrence in South Asia. Another recent development is that India is deviating from Credible Minimum Deterrence and opting for credible deterrence. More importantly, in article 2.

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