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I suggest that certain criteria such as capital size 1, for polities ranging in population from 5, toand, degree of centralization, differentiation and specialization be employed to separate chiefdoms from the larger category of supra-community polity the ciudades precolombinas hardoy or non-urban state.

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In ciudades precolombinas hardoy Peruvian sequence whether one uses village form or ceremonial center, or both, any multi-valley settlement hierarchy that one attempts to construct prior to Gallinazo or late Formative fails to provide evidence for a unified polity of any duration e.

Even within one valley during Chavinoid times shrines show considerable formal diversity.


At most the type of social organization ciudades precolombinas hardoy might be inferred for a given region in the Early Horizon would be a chiefdom of limited population 4.

The beginnings of what might be called the non-urban ancient state ciudades precolombinas hardoy with the ceremonial centers of Mochica and perhaps the somewhat earlier versions of Gallinazo and Gallinazo-like manifestations in other valleys 5.

This prototype is defined by Sanders and Marino, but is not identified with ciudades precolombinas hardoy specific manifestations. Steward and Faron also classify the Ciudades precolombinas hardoy and other Formative cultures of Peru as "theocratic states" with no antecedent chiefdom phase as they jump from the era of incipient farming and "folk society" to theocratic states.

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When they deal with chiefdoms outside the Central Andes Steward and Faron: Recent undocumented claims for a supra-community hegemony during the Early Horizon Sanders ciudades precolombinas hardoy Marino: The degree of differentiation of settlements in Gallinazo argues for a relatively small polity, but the cultural evidence indicates status rather than class stra- Schaedel 19 king, this is regrettable, since 1 the urban ancient state would seem to follow, even though it might co-exist for a certain time, the non-urban ancient state; and 2 the urban state can be correlated by dividing it into small and large with the town and city, respectively.

The Early Intermediate Period: The diversity of social integration reflected in the co-existence of the castillo-fortification complexes with the multi-roomed dwelling complexes may indicate that communal structures were integral parts of the supra-community hegemony.

Assuming ciudades precolombinas hardoy interpretations of Willey and Strong and Evans are correct, i.


Major population clusters Estimated population Capital major population center This analysis would yield a population for the polity of 16, rather than the 25, that Willey estimated on the basis of maximum ecological potential.

The hypothesis can be advanced ciudades precolombinas hardoy a multi-valley polity based upon Gallinazo-like sites in the Moche, Chicama, Jequetepeque, Ciudades precolombinas hardoy, Leche and including Vicus.

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The reasoning for this and subsequent calculations on persons per acre and urban density ciudades precolombinas hardoy given in the appendix. The dense agglomeration of dwellings at the Gallinazo group suggests that most of the artisans of the polity may have been concentrated there.

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The cultural inventory and cemetery content indicate status differentiation but not enough segregation by groups to indicate marked class stratification. Let it be emphasized that the specifications for urban are only partially met ciudades precolombinas hardoy the Gallinazo center.

Very similar to this type of architectural differentiation is the site of Cerro Culebras, an early Ciudades precolombinas hardoy period settlement in the Chillon valley Stumer: Until there is a better definition of the ancient non-urban state, we consider both the Gallinazo and Cerro Culebras sites as corresponding to the capitals of chiefdoms.

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Moving to the Mochica period, the unitary basis is enlarged from single to multi-valley. The demographic parameters increase accordingly, hut there is ciudades precolombinas hardoy such a corresponding extension of settlement pattern differentiation.


Size is the major change. In terms of the societal evidence based upon the Viru valley dataas reflected in the settlement patterns, the same forms are continued from the Gallinazo period. The basic introduction is in a certain planning or regularity of structure 7. The ecologically potential maximum in terms of cultivable area for this polity would ciudades precolombinas hardoy in the magnitude ciudades precolombinas hardoyacres.

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